Theobromine essay

However, ever since hallucinogenic experimentation was discontinued in the late s, research into the therapeutic applications of such drugs have been almost nonexistent, that is until this last decade where research has finally been allowed to resume. As a result, public "coffeeshops" in the Netherlands openly sell cannabis for personal use, and "smart shops" sell drugs like Salvia divinorumand until the ban of psilocybin mushrooms took effect, they were still available for purchase in smartshops as well.

Thus, the term entheogen, derived from the Greek word entheos, which means "god within", was introduced by Ruck et al. This may be explained by the familiarity of both A. Certain hallucinogens, such as PCP, act through a glutamate receptor in the brain which is important for perception of pain, responses to the environment, and learning and memory.

It has been found that LSD is a fairly effective treatment for mental disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder OCD. Because of the high level of physical activity and relative imperviousness to pain induced by PCP, some deaths have been reported due to the release of myoglobin from ruptured muscle cells.

Non-religious reasons for the use of hallucinogens including Theobromine essayintrospectivepsychotherapeuticrecreational and even hedonistic motives, each subject Theobromine essay some degree of social disapproval, have all been defended as the legitimate exercising of civil liberties and freedom of thought.

In this context they are referred to as entheogensand they are used to facilitate healing, divination, communication with spirits, and coming-of-age ceremonies.

Injury from falling is also a danger, as nitrous oxide may cause sudden loss of consciousness, an effect of oxygen deprivation.


In the early s, counterculture icons such as Jerry GarciaTimothy LearyAllen Ginsberg and Ken Kesey advocated the drugs for their psychedelic effects, and a large subculture of psychedelic drug users was spawned.

But no sooner had the term been invented, or Lewin complained that the word "does not cover all that I should wish it to convey", and indeed with the proliferation of research following the discovery of LSD came numerous attempts to improve on it, such as hallucinogen, phanerothyme, psychedelicpsychotomimeticpsychogenic, schizophrenogenic, cataleptogenic, mysticomimetic, psychodysleptic, and entheogenic.

THC and salvinorin A are exceptions. The most popular names—hallucinogen, psychotomimetic, and psychedelic "mind manifesting" —have often been used interchangeably. This also includes mood, hunger, body temperature, sexual behavior, muscle control, and sensory perception.

The 3-pronged test for schedule 1 drugs is as follows: Important developments in the years that followed included the re-discovery of Mexican psilocybin mushrooms in by Robert J. Bymore than articles on LSD had appeared in medical journals, and bythe number had increased to more than articles.

Research on this question has not reached a firm conclusion. As ofmost well-known hallucinogens aside from dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine and dimenhydrinate are illegal in most Western countries.

The words entactogen, empathogen, dissociative and deliriant, at last, have all been coined to refer to classes of drugs similar to the classical psychedelics that seemed deserving of a name of their own.

Most recently, there has been a movement in nonscientific circles to recognize the ability of these substances to provoke mystical experiences and evoke feelings of spiritual significance. How hallucinogens affect the brain[ edit ] Main article: Gold to distinguish these drugs from psychedelics and dissociativessuch as LSD and ketamine respectively, due to their primary effect of causing deliriumas opposed to the more lucid states produced by the other hallucinogens.

Duncan and Robert S. Previously included were hallucinogenic mushrooms, but as of October the Netherlands officials have moved to ban their sale following several widely publicized incidents involving tourists.

Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine, barbiturates and even diazepam have been found to prevent NAN. LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin cause their effects by initially disrupting the interaction of nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin. The famous German toxicologist Louis Lewin used the name phantastica earlier in this century, and as we shall see later, such a descriptor is not so farfetched.

In this vein, the following categories are often used: Nutmeg has deliriant and hallucinogenic effects as well due to some of its psychoactive chemicals, such as myristicinwhich may be anticholinergic like the tropane alkaloids of the nightshade plants, or as suggested by Alexander Shulginpartially metabolized into the empathogen-entactogen MMDA.A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics, dissociatives and ultimedescente.comgh hallucinations are a common symptom of amphetamine psychosis, amphetamines are not considered hallucinogens, as they are .

Theobromine essay
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